The active ingredient in the Penetrexx antimicrobial forms a colorless, odorless, positively charged, polymer, which chemically bonds to the treated surface, think of it as a layer of electrically charged swords. When a microorganism comes in contact with the treated surface, the “quat” or “sword” puncture the cell membrane and the electrical charge shocks the cell. Since nothing is transferred to the now dead cell, the antimicrobial doesn’t lose strength and the sword is ready for the next cell to contact it. Normal cleaning of treated surfaces is necessary to prevent the buildup of dirt, dead microbes, etc. which could cover the “swords”, prohibiting it from killing microorganisms.